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Allah Daya Gari Bambam

Al’adar Rashin Wanka Da Ba Da Aron Matan Aure Ga Baki A Kabilar Himba

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A yau mun kewa duniya inda mukaci karo da mutanen kabilar Himba. Masu karatu, Filin namu na yau zai sada ku ne da mutanen kabilar Himba. Su dai wadannan suna zaune ne a Arewa maso gabashin Namibia a wani bangare na kunene wanda aka fi sani ko ake kira da ‘kaoko land’. Mutanen Himba asalin mutanene na Herero na cikin Bantu wadanda suka sauka a Namibia a tsakiyar karni na goma sha shida. Sun koma wajejen sakamakon hari da makotansu na Nama band suka kawo masu wanda har suka sami nasarar kwashe musu shanaye , inda daga nan ne kuma aka sake wa Herero suna da “Obahimba”, ma’ana “Mabarata (beggar) saboda rashin ababe na more rayuwa a matsayinsu na ‘yan gudun hijira ne ya sanya wadannan mutane barin kasar Angola a wajejen shekarun 1920, lokacin da wani jarumin mafadaci mai suna ‘Bita ‘ ya yi wa mutanen kabilar fashi wajen komawa Kaokoland inda har suka yi nasarar kwato da yawa daga cikin shanayensu da aka karbe a wancan lokacin. Tun daga wannan lokaci kuwa mutanen Himba suke zaune suna rayuwa cikin kwanciyar hankali ba tare da wata kyara ko tsangwama ba.
Tattalin arziki

Su dai mutanen Himba sun dogara ne akan noma, kiwon shanaye da awakai da kuma raguna, a lokuta irin na damina kuwa mata sunada gonakinsu na musamman inda suke noma masara, dawa, dauro da sauran su. Inda wasu kuma suke shuka nau’ika na gyada da kiwon zuma. Zuwa yanzu dai farauta aba ce da aka haramta a kasar tasu ta Kaokoland.
Auratayya

Dukkan aurarraki na kabilar Himba yana aukuwa ne ta dalilin hadaka da manya sukeyiwa ma’aurata ta hanyar biyan sadaki kalilan, wanda ya kasance mafi yawanci saniya daya ne da Raguna biyu, a wani bangaren kuma saurayi da budurwa ko miji da mata sukan fada ne a tarkon soyayya wanda yakan sa su sami iyayensu domin neman yarda, amma fa wannan yakan faru ne yawanci a lokacin yin aure na biyu ko na uku a maimakon auren fari. Sukan yi aure wa kananan yara domin kuwa wani lokacin a kan yiwa jaririya baiko da babban mutum ko saurayi, duk da kasancewar idan an yi hakan akan yi bukukuwa irin na shagalin aure, sai dai hakan ba ya sanyawa ita yarinya ta koma wajen miji da zama har sai ta girma ta kai munzali. Mata sukan iya haihuwa kafin aure, hakan ba wani laifi ba ne.
Ilimi


Akwai makarantu a mafiya yawancin yankunansu na Omuhonga, sai dai kuma duk da haka kadan ne daga cikin matasan kabilar Himba ke zuwa makaranta, haka ma kananan yara daga cikinsu, mafi yawanci lokacin kiwo sun fi maida hankali a kan kiwon shanu sadanin zuwa makaranta domin kuwa yaran kabilar Himba sun fi amfani wajen noma da kiwo.
Kabilar Himba suna da wasu al’adu wadanda suka kasance na ban mamaki ga sauran kabilu.
Abu na farko dai shi ne “Rashin wanka”
Mutanen kabilar himba sun kasance kabilar da basa wanka ,dalili kuwa shine ,sun kasance suna rayuwa a waje mai tsaurin yanayi, domin kuwa suna rayuwa ne a daya daga cikin wajejen da ya fi ko ina tsaurin yanayi a duniya. Wajen ya kasance babu wadataccen ruwa domin rayuwar yau da kullum, hakan ne ma ya sanya su basa wanka kamar sauran mutane, amma duk da haka kuwa sun kasance masu tsabar kyau a ido musamman a ce suna sanye da tufafinsu na al’ada, sai dai kuma tufafin sun kasance masu nuna tsiraici musamman na mata.
Rashin yin wankansu bai sanya suna samun matsaloli daga bangaren lafiya ba domin kuwa sukan shafa “jan ochre” a jikinsu sannan kuma sukan yi wankan hayaki domin kare lafiyarsu.
Shi dai wannan wanka na hayaki akan yi shine ta hanyar sanya wasu itatuwansu da ganyayyaki cikin wuta kamar dai a ce gawayai a kasko na turaren wuta ko dan kwano haka, yayin da ganyayyakinnan suka hadu suka fara hayaki kuwa sukan dukufa ne akan wannan hayaki tare da sanya wadataccen tufafi ko bargo su rufe kansu kirif a cikin hayakin nan domin kar ya samu wajen fita, hakan ne zai sanya jikin mutum ya fara fid da ruwa irin na zufa, lokacin da zufan nan ya fita sosai daga jikin mutum to a lokacin ne zai zama cewa mutum ya tsaftace jikinsa.
Girmama bako
Hausawa sukance ‘bakonka Annabinka’, toh hakan ne take kasancewa da mutanen kabilar Himba, sai dai su girmamawa da daukaka bakon nasu ya sha banbam da na saura al’adu domin kuwa saboda tsananin girma da kimantawa da suke yiwa bako ne ma ya sanya duk lokacin da aka ce bako ya yi sallama a kofar gidanka, to fa ba ka da sauran sukuni sai dai na farantawa wannan bako ,ta hanyar bashi karramawa da sukeyiwa lakabi da ‘Okjepisa omukazendu’. Wannan karramawa dai yana nufin karbar bako ta hanyar bashi aron matarka na wannan dare yayin da shi kuma mijin zai kwana a wani dakin daban, idan kuwa aka sami akasi cewar ba wani daki na daban da mijin zai kwana a ciki, to kuwa zai bar wa bakonsa da matarsa dakin nasu ne yayin da shi kuma zai je ya kwana a waje, tirkashi!
Wannan al’ada tana da matukar amfani a cewarsu domin kuwa yana rage zafin kishi sannan yana kara dankon zumunci, ita dai mace ta kasance ba ta da ta-cewa wajen nuna ra’ayinta a kan wannan al’mari, domin kuwa bukatar miji shi ke zuwa farko kafin komai, hakan ne yasanya har ya zamto cewar mace tana da damar kin kwana daki daya da mijinta na aure, amma fa ban da bako wannan ya zama dole. Wannan abu bai tsaya a kan bako namiji kadai ba, domin kuwa ita ma mace takan sallama wa baauwarta mace nata mijin, sai dai kuma ba sosai ba, hakan ya fi faruwa a kan maza.
Mace tana da damar ta yi mu’amala da mijin da ba nata ba ,musamman a ce idan mijinta ya fita daga garin domin kiwon dabbobi, tofah namijin sai wanda ta zaba, hakan kuma ba ya nufin ta aikata laifi, cafdijam! Hausawa na cewa ‘inda ranka ka sha kallo!”
Addini
Kabilar himba mutane ne dake bautar dabbobi karkashi abin bautarsu mai suna Mukuru. Yanda suke mu’amala da Allahnsu kuwa shi ne ta hanyar hayaki wanda suke kiransa da ‘Holy fire’, hayakin yakan fara daga kofar gidan maigari zuwa inda suke hada shi yana tashi yayin da ake ajiye gunguma-gunguman katakai ko itace domin kara wa a cikin wutar idan bukatar hakan ta taso.




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