Fasahar Sarrafa Takardar Lian-shi-zhi Mai Dogon Tarihi A Kasar Sin

Daga Tasallah Yuan,

Sanin kowa ne cewa, fasahar sarrafa takarda, fasahar dab’i, albarushi da ma’aunin nuna alkibla, su ne muhimman abubuwa hudu da Sinawa masu hazaka suka kirkiro a zamanin da. A cikin fasahohin sarrafa takarda da aka yi amfani da su a zamanin da a kasar Sin, takardar Lian-shi-zhi, wadda aka sarrafa a gundumar Yanshan da ke lardin Jiangxi ya kasance wani muhimmin matsayi bisa ga dogon tarihinta, da fasahar sarrafawa mai sarkakiyya, da kuma ingancinta.

Gundumar Yanshan, wata karamar gunduma ce a lardin Jiangxi, amma ta taka muhimmiyar rawa a tarihin kasar Sin na sarrafa takarda. A zamanin da, a nan kasar Sin, wasu muhimman littattafai da dama da suka shahara an wallafa su ne ta hanyar amfani da takardar Lian-shi-zhi, wadda aka sarrafa a gundumar ta Yanshan.

Zhang Shikang, wanda ya shahara a fannin fasahar sarrafa takardar Lian-shi-zhi daga zuriya zuwa wata, ya fara koyon fasahar sarrafa takardar ce daga wajen mahaifinsa tun yana karami. Kakani-kakaninsa sun kaddamar da aikin sarrafa takardar Lian-shi-zhi tun can da. A lokacin da yake tuna abubuwan da suka faru a baya, mista Zhang ya gaya mana cewa, “A lokacin hunturu, ana sanyi kwarai da gaske. Amma tilas ne mu gudanar da wasu matakan sarrafa takardar Lian-shi-zhi a cikin ruwa. A wasu lokuta, matukar sanyi ya kan tilasta mu saka hannayenmu cikin ruwa mai zafi domin dumama su kadan. Idan mun yi yini guda muna sarrafa takardar cikin ruwan da ke dauke da sinadarin sarrafa takardar ba tare da kasala ba, to, mu kan gaji matuka, musamman ma kugunmu. Dole ne mu kwantar da hankalinmu a lokacin da muke sarrafa takardar. In an taba takardar, ta kan lalace, shi ke nan, abun da ka yi ya tafi a banza.”

A kan sarrafa takardar Lian-shi-zhi ne da hannu kawai, aikin da ke dogaro da fasahar da masu sarrafa takardar suke amfani da ita matuka, wadanda suka kyautata fasahar daga zuriya zuwa zuriya. Da wuya a sarrafa takardar bisa fasahar zamani.

In an kwatanta ta da wasu nau’o’in takardu masu dogon tarihi, takardar Lian-shi-zhi ta fi yin fintikau a fannonin hana ruwa ya ratsa ta, da jure zafi, sa’an nan kuma ana iya adana ta na dogon lokaci. Shi Lixiong, wani kwararre masanin takardar Lian-shi-zhi ya yi karin bayani da cewa, “A saboda farinta, takardar Lian-shi-zhi na iya jure zafi, abubuwan da aka rubuta a kanta, za su dade ba su kode ba, haka kuma, ana iya adana takardar na tsawon lokaci. Tawadar da ake amfani da ita, tana iya kama da takardar Lian-shi-zhi cikin sauki. Sakamakon adana takardar Lian-shi-zhi na tsawon lokaci, ya sa ake kiranta takarda mai tsawon tarihi na shekaru dubu guda.”

A tarihin kasar Sin, dimbin shahararrun littattafai da aka wallafa su ta hanyar amfani da takardar Lian-shi-zhi suna da yawan gaske. Ban da wannan kuma, zane-zane, rubutattun wakoki da wakokin gargajiyar kasar Sin masu tsawon tarihin daruruwa da dubban shekaru, suna ci gaba da kasancewa a duniya sakamakon rubuta su kan takardar nan ta Lian-shi-zhi.

Mista Shi Lixiong ya kara da cewa, “Yau shekaru kimanin dari 8 da suka wuce, wato a zamanin daular Song da Yuan na kasar Sin, musamman ma bayan zamanin daular Ming, wato yau shekaru kimanin dari 6 da suka gabata, takardar Lian-shi-zhi ta kai matakin koli a tarihi. A wancan lokaci, ana amfani da ita a fadar sarakuna.”

Sabili da haka ne, takardar Lian-shi-zhi ta dade tana taka muhimmiyar rawa a fannonin abubuwan da aka gada da kuma yayata al’adun al’ummar Sin. Har ma a shekarun 1980, a kan yi amfani da takardar wajen wallafa littattafai ta salon da Sinawa suke amfani da su a zamanin da. Bugu da kari, a kan sayar da takardar Lian-shi-zhi zuwa kasashen Japan da Korea ta Kudu da wasu kasashen kudu maso gabashin Asiya.

Amma duk da haka, sakamakon bunkasuwar tattalin arzikin kasar Sin, makuden kudaden da a ke kashewa wajen sarrafawa da kuma sarkakkiyar fasahar sarrafawa, ya sa takardar Lian-shi-zhi ba ta biya bukatun kasuwanni ba. Ya zuwa karshen shekarun 1980, an daina sarrafa takardar Lian-shi-zhi a gundumar ta Yanshan. Masu sarrafa takardar da yawa kamar mista Zhang Shikang sun rasa ayyukansu, ba su san abun da za su yi a nan gaba ba. Amma a shekara ta 2006, halin da takardar Lian-shi-zhi take ciki ya sauya. A wannan shekara, kasar Sin ta sanya fasahar sarrafa takardar Lian-shi-zhi cikin takardar jerin sunayen abubuwan tarihi na al’adu da ba na kaya ba a rukuni na farko. Baya ga haka kuma, a shekara ta 2008, a yayin bikin bude gasar wasannin Olympic da aka shirya a birnin Beijing, hedkwatar kasar Sin, an gwada yadda Sinawa suke sarrafa takarda ta hanyar da suka saba gada tun fil azal, lamarin da ya sanya mista Zhang Shikang ya ji farin ciki matuka. A ganinsa, da alama akwai damar farfado da aikin sarrafa takardar Lian-shi-zhi, har ma ya yi shirin koyar da yaransa fasahar.

A daidai wannan lokaci, wasu sun gano darajar da takardar Lian-shi-zhi take da ita. A shekara ta 2009, mista Yan Zhonghua ya zuba kudin Sin yuan miliyan 2 ko fiye, don maido da aikin sarrafa takardar Lian-shi-zhi. A matsayinsa na haifaffen gundumar Yanshan, ko da yake mista Yan Zhonghua, kana shugaban wani kamfani, bai san fasahar sarrafa takardar sosai ba, amma ya fahimci darajar da takardar take da ita kwarai da gaske.

Mista Yan ya nuna cewa, “A ganina, abin da nake yi na da ma’ana. Takardar Lian-shi-zhi ta samo asali ne a gundumarmu ta Yanshan. Idan mu mazauna Yanshan muna iya gadarta daga zuriya zuwa wata, to, lamarin zai ba yi babban tasiri kan fasahar, da ma al’adun gargajiyar kasarmu.”

A kokarin gadar abun tarihi na al’adu da ba na kaya ba yadda ya kamata da kuma sake sarrafa takardun Lian-shi-zhi masu inganci, mista Yan ya aika da ma’aikatansa zuwa wurare da dama, domin ziyartar masu fasahar sarrafa takardar. Ba shakka mista Zhang Shikang ya jawo hankalin mista Yan. Da mista Zhang Shikang ya fahimci cewa, zai samu damar ci gaba da sarrafa takardar Lian-shi-zhi, wannan ya sa ya bar aikin da yake yi a wani wuri da ke kawo masa kudin shiga da yawa, ya koma garinsa ba tare da yin wata-wata ba, ya shiga aikin da mista Yan ke gudanarwa.

A game da kudurin da ya tsai da, mista Zhang bai yi da-na-sani ko kadan ba, yana mai cewar, “Da alamun gwamnatin kasarmu tana sa ran alheri kan bunkasuwar takardar Lian-shi-zhi, tare da mai da hankali kan sarrafa takardar. Ta haka ina da imanin ci gaba da aikina a gundumarmu. Haka zalika yayata fasahar sarrafa takardar da kuma koyar da matasa, abubuwa ne masu kyau.”

Yanzu haka ana sake sarrafa takardun Lian-shi-zhi, wanda aka dakatar har na tsawon shekaru da dama. Sa’an nan kuma, ana ta kyautata fasahar, lamarin da ya sanya ake ta kyautata ingancin takardun. Sabili da haka takardun na kara samun karbuwa.

Mista Yan ya yi nuni da cewa, tabbatar da takardar Lian-shi-zhi a matsayin takardar da aka yi amfani da ita wajen wallafa littattafai ta hanyar gargajiya, na daya daga cikin manufofinsa, inda ya ce, “Tun daga shekarar bara, kamfaninmu ya fara hada kai da cibiyar nazarin fasahar sarrafa takarda ta Jiangxi domin kyautata ingancin takardar Lian-shi-zhi cikin sauri bisa ga hada fasahar gargajiya da ta zamani waje guda. Yanzu muna kokarin fito da ka’idodji da suka shafi sarrafa takardar Lian-shi-zhi.”

Bayan jure wahalhalu da dama, takardar Lian-shi-zhi ta samu kyakkyawar makoma. Shi Lixiong, wani kwararre ne kan ilmin takardar ya yi bayani da cewa, “A matsayinta al’adun al’ummar Sin mai dogon tarihi, tilas ne a yi kokarin gadon wasu al’adun gargajiya ta hanyar wasu abubuwa. A bisa wannan hali, takardar Lian-shi-zhi za ta ci gaba da kasancewa a duniya tare da gadar al’adun gargajiyar kasar Sin daga zuriya zuwa wata.”  (Tasallah Yuan)

 

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