Fitar Da Kuɗi Ba Bisa Ƙa’ida Ba: Babban Bankin Nijeriya Na Neman Sa Tattalin Arzikin Ƙasa A Haɗari

Daga Muhammad A. Abubakar

An bankaɗo yadda Babban Bankin Nijeriya, wato CBN yake fitar da wasu kuɗaɗe ba bisa ƙa’ida ba domin bai wa gwamnatin tarayyar Nijeriya wanda wasu manazarta kan sha’anin kuɗi da ayyukan cikin gida dake Babban Bankin suka gargaɗi Bankin akan hakan, domin a cewar su hakan na jefa tattalin arzikin ƙasaa yanayin fuskantar babbar barazana na rugujewa.

Babban Bankin Nijeriyar a cikin shekara ya fitar da Tiriliyoyin kuɗi ba bisa ƙa’ida ba, domin bai wa gwamnatin tarayya da sunan gudanar da wasu ayyuka daban-daban waɗanda suka haɗa da kuɗin gudanar da wasu ayyuka, da wasu manyan kuɗaɗe da aka bai wa gwamnati wanda aka fitar da su ta wani “buɗaɗɗen asusu.”

A zantawar majiyarmu da tsohon Gwamnan Babban Bankin Nijeriya, da kuma tsohon mataimakin Gwamnan Bankin duk sun yi gargaɗi akan a ɗauki mataki, sannan kuma kada a nuna halin-ko-in-kula na yadda ake fitar da waɗannan kuɗaɗe ana bai wa gwamnati ba bisa ƙa’ida ba, da sunan kawo ƙarshen matsalolin tattalin arzikin ƙasa wanda suka haɗa da samar da ayyukan gida da cike gurabe a ɓangarori masu zaman kansu, domin zai haifar da matsaloli wanda za a ɗauki lokaci mai tsawo ba a magance ba. An fara fitar da wannan gargaɗin ne a zaman ƙarshe na kwamitin tsare-tsare na Sha’anin kuɗi na Babban Bankin wanda ya gudana a ranakun 24 da 25 ga watan Yulin 2017.

A takardar zaman da aka wallafa a ranar Talata, membobin kwamitin bayar da shawara da tsare-tsare, sun bayyana cewa; “akwai damuwa na yadda ake samun ƙaruwa a ɓangaren kuɗin da gwamnati take karɓa wanda ya kai aƙalla Naira Tiriliyan 2.51 a rabin shekarar 2017, wannan ya zarce abin da gwamnatin take da shi. Kuma akwai matsala na yadda bashin da gwamnatin take karɓa ya yi yawan gaske.”

Wasu membobin kwamitin a na su bayanin wanda ya fito a shafi na 50 na rahoton zaman, sun nuna yadda suka cire hannunsu saboda yadda Babban Bankin ke kula ko juya ɓangaren sha’anin kuɗin na daga kuɗaɗen da ake samu daga haraji da sauran wasu hanyoyi wanda ka iya jefa tattalin arzikin cikin wani wawukeken rami da zai wahalar fitowa.

Har wa yau, wani Memban Kwamitin, Adedoyin Salami ya bayyana yadda yake ganin haɗarin gaske da har aka kai irin wannan yanayin ana fitar da irin waɗannan kuɗaɗen ba bisa ƙa’idar doka ba, ana bai wa gwamnati daga Babban Bankin da wasunsu.

Mr. Salami wanda yake masanin tattalin arziki ne, kuma memba ne a tsangayar makarantar kasuwanci dake Legas, da yake bayyana tsarin sha’anin fitar da kuɗin CBN, ya nuna Babban Bankin Nijeriyan a matsayin kwandon shara, inda ya gargaɗe su akan yadda suke tura ƙasarnan zuwa ga matsanancin fuskantar matsin tattalin arziki.

Ya caccaki babban Bankin na Nijeriya musamman yadda suke fitar da kuɗi ringis a ƙasa, adadi mai yawan gaske suna ba gwamnati, inda ya zarge Bankin da cewa; sun zama tamkar wata lalitar gwamnati, suna saɓa tsarinsu da dokokin da Bankin yake da su domin biyan buƙatun gwamnati. “tsarin fitar da kuɗi daga asusun CBN ya nuna yadda yake ƙaruwa da sauri, saboda yadda Bankin ke ba gwamnati kuɗin da ya zarce na ta.” Inji shi.

Masanin tattalin arzikin, ya ci gaba da cewa; daga watan Disamban 2016, Bankin na CBN sun riƙa bai wa gwamnatin tarayya kuɗi ringis a ƙasa tun kama daga Tiriliyoyi, wanda ya wuce ƙa’idar da doka ta tanada. Ya ce; ko abin da Bankin CBN ya ba gwamnatin tarayyar na Naira Biliyan 814, ya nunka sau 20, na abin da doka ta tanada. Ya ce; abin mamaki ne a ce ko a iƙirarin Bankunan Kasuwanci, ya nuna yadda ƙaruwarsa yake da kashi 0.4 wanda ya kai Tiriliyan 4.6.

Wata hanya da Bankin CBN ke bi wajen fitar da kuɗi zuwa ga gwamnatin, Mr. Salami ya ce; shi ne ta hanyar kuɗin Bankin wanda ya kai Naira Biliyan 454 a tsarin karɓar bashi domin yin wasu ayyuka, wanda ko wannan ya ƙaru da kashi 30.

Mr. Salami ya ci gaba da cewa; yadda ake samun saurin hauhawar karɓar kuɗin, yana daga irin kallon da gwamnati ke ma asusun, wanda ke ɗauke da kuɗaɗen haraji, bashi da ribar da ake samu, wanda ya ce; “daga ƙarshen shekarar 2016 Naira Biliyan 3 ne amma zuwa watan Afrilun 2017 ya kai zuwa Naira Tiriliyan 1.5.”

Sai dai hukumomi a Bankin na CBN zuwa haɗa rahoton nan sun kasa musanta zarge-zargen Mr. Salami.

A dokokin Babban Bankin Nijeriyan, kundin tsari na ‘Act 2007’ ya fayyace cewa; ɗibar makuɗan kuɗaɗe kai tsaye ana bai wa gwamnatin tarayya kai tsaye ya saɓa wa ƙudurin wannan dokar.

Duk da sashi na 38 sakin layi na (1) na dokar Bankin ya bata damar bai wa gwamnatin tarayya kuɗi na wucin gadi domin girmama ƙudurinsu na cike gurbin kasafin haraji. Amma a sakin layi na (2) na wannan dokar ya nuna cewa; “adadin kuɗin da za a bayar kada a sake ta kowacce siffa ya zarce kashi 5 na haƙiƙanin kuɗin bashi na harajin da gwamnatin tarayya take samu na daga shekarun da suka gabata.”

Har wala yau, a sakin layi na (3) dokar ta bada damar cewa waɗannan kuɗaɗe da aka ranta; “dole ne a biya su a kan lokaci, kuma a kowanne irin dalili, dole su maida kuɗaɗen a ƙarshen kowacce shekara da gwamnatin tarayya take ware kuɗi, kuma idan har ba su biya waɗannan kuɗin ba a ƙarshen kowacce shekara, to Bankin ba shi da ƙarfin ya sake ba su wani kuɗi a bisa kowanne dalili a wasu shekarun, sai dai idan har sun biya kuɗin da aka ranta musu.”

An ƙiyasta cewa, a shekarar da ta gabata gwamnati ta karɓi aƙalla Tiriliyan 6, wanda kuma a bisa doka Bankin CBN bai kamata ya basu kuɗin da ya wuce Naira Biliyan 300 ba.

Masana tattalin arziki, sun bayyana cewa; halayyar gwamnati da kuma Bankin na CBN ya taƙaitawa ɓangaren masu zaman kansu karɓar bashi, kuma wannan ya taimakawa ɓangaren ya faɗa matsanacin halin da yake ciki a yanzu.

Dangane da haka, Mista Salami ya ce: “A sakamakon wannan, mun samu kanmu a wani yanayi da gwamnati take karɓar bashi daga CBN, kuma wannan ya haifar da rashin tafiyar abubuwa ta hanyar bunƙasa CRR na Bankuna, sannan ya taƙaitawa ɓangarorin masu zaman kansu wajen karɓan bashi.”

Ya ƙara da cewa; ”Ɓangaren masu zaman kansu “sun fara watsewa”, abin mamaki ne a ce gwamnati da take da buƙatar haraji, amma a rabin shekarar farko ta kwashe dukkan abin da take da shi na shekara guda. Wannan kuma ya takurawa ɓangaren masu zaman kansu wajen bayar da kuɗin haraji.”

Masana sun bayyana cewa: domin cike wannan gurbin da ake samu na fitar da kuɗi ana bai wa gwamnatin tarayya ba bisa ƙa’ida ba, Bankin CBN na so ya fito da wasu sabbin tsare-tsaren da zasu ba su dama domin su gyara wannan mataki mai haɗari da suke tafkawa.

Irin sabbin matakan da CBN ta ɗauka, majiyarmu ta lura da yadda ake fitar da kuɗaɗe akai-akai ana jibgawa a asusun ‘Foreɗ’na ƙasashen waje domin hulɗar kasuwanci, saboda yadda ake samun yawan masu buƙatar kuɗin.

Dangane da Babban Bankin kuwa, Mr. Salami ya ce; Bankin yana gwanjon wasu kayayyaki domin daidaita adadin kuɗin ajiya na Bankin wato CRR.

Mr. Salami ya ƙara da cewa; “domin ta dakatar da wannan fitar kuɗin na rashin hankali da Bankin CBN ke yi na bai wa gwamnatin tarayya ya nuna yadda ake samun ƙarin hauhawar farashin kayayyaki, da faɗuwar darajar Naira, Bankin na CBN sun fito da hanyar “gwanjon kayayyaki.”

Bayan ƙoƙarin bunƙasaɓangaren CRR sama da kashi 22.5, Mr. Salami ya ce; “wannan hanyar da suke bi wajen wannan ‘gwanjo’, ya tuna mana lokutan kiyaye tsaro.”

Mr. Salami ya nuna damuwarsa da yadda ya ke jin tsoro na yadda kada Bankin ya yi gaggawar shelanta nasara akan cewa an kawo ƙarshen matsalar hauhawar kaya da kuma kasuwar FOREƊ, inda ya ce; har yanzu ƙasar nan bata fita daga waɗannan matsaloli ba. Sannan ya koka da cewa; “babban ƙalubalen da tsarin tattalin arzikin Nijeriya yake fuskanta shi ne yadda hukumomin Babban Bankin Nijeriya ke gudanar da ayyukansu na watsar da tsarin inganci.”

Wani memba a MPC, Abdul-Ganiyu Garba, ya ƙalubalanci tsarin sha’anin kuɗin CBN, inda ya zarge su da haifar da matsaloli. “samar da hanyar amsar riba mai yawa da bunƙasa fitar da kuɗaɗe masu yawa, ya saɓawa hankali. Kuma tabbas wannan ya haifar da matsaloli. Watsar da ɗaukar tsarin inganci da cancanta, shi ne ya haifar da hauhawar fitar kuɗaɗe masu yawa a ƙasashe, kuma wannan ya jefa tsarin ribar da ake samu zuwa sifili.”Inji shi.

Mista Garba wanda yake Farfesa ne, ya zargi Bankin da taka rawa wajen ɓata tsarin kasuwancin ƙasashen waje, da kuɗaɗen dake kasuwanni, kuɗaɗen siyarwa da kuma farashin kayayyaki.” Sakamakon samun hauhawar fitar da kuɗi a shekarun 2015 zuwa 2016.”

Tsohon mataimakin Gwamnan Bankin na CBN wanda yake masanin tattalin arziki ne wanda ya buƙaci a sakaya sunansa, a zantawarsa da majiyarmu, ya bayyana ayyukan Babban Bankin a matsayin “ganganci” wanda ya saɓawa alƙaluman da doka ta tanada. Sannan ya zargi Mr. Emifiele da “kwasar maƙuɗan kuɗaɗe” ya na bai wa gwamnati saɓanin yadda doka ya tanada da kuma rashin duba darajar Babban Bankin.

“Gwamnan Bankin CBN ma’aikacin Banki ne, kuma mashawarci ne ga gwamnati. Bankin hukuma ce wajen sha’anin kula da kuɗi, ba hukumar bayar da kuɗi ba. Rawarsu ba shi ne bai wa gwamnati bashin kuɗi yadda suka ga dama ba.” Inji shi.

Sannan ya shawarci Gwamnati da mahukuntan CBN akan; “su daidaita tsarin ayyukansu,” idan har suna so abubuwa su dawo daidai. Idan ba haka ba a cewarsa; “za su ci gaba da samar da yanayin da zai haifar da matsanciyar hauhawar farashin kaya da rage darajar kuɗin.”

Baya ga yadda ake fitar da maƙudan kuɗaɗe ta hanyar da ta saɓawa doka daga Bankin na CBN, gwamnatin tarayya tana karɓar basussuka daga ƙasashen waje da kuma cikin gida.

Wani memban MPC, Suleiman Barau, ya yi gargaɗi akan haɗarin dake cikin cire Naira Biliyan 760 daga kuɗin Paris Club domin biyan jihohi. Mista Barau wanda yake mataimakin Gwamnan Bankin CBN, ya ƙara da cewa; ci gaba da biyan jihohi daga kuɗin Paris Club da sunan kuɗaɗen da aka dawo da su, zai iya haifar da matsaloli daga farfaɗowar da tattalin arzikin yake yi.  “tunanin ci gaba da fitar da kuɗin ba zamu iya cewa gaba ɗaya ba daidai bane, amma ci gaba da ƙarfafa fitan kuɗin, zai iya haifar da matsaloli a nan gaba.”

Sannan ya ci gaba da cewa; “a zahirin gaskiya shi ne; abubuwan da irin wannan fitar kuɗin ke haifar wa yana da tasiri a hauhawar farashi, shigo da kaya cikin ɗan ƙanƙanin lokaci. Kuma banda wannan ma, akwai hujjojin da suke nuna bunƙasar ƙarin kuɗaɗe a tsarin ayyukan Bankin a irin halin rashin tafiyar abubuwa, musamman a ɓangaren masu zaman kansu.”

“Ba abu ne wanda ake so ba, amma irin yadda ake fitar da waɗannan maƙudan kuɗaɗe, zai iya haifar da matsalolin ƙarancin ko kuma tsadar kuɗaɗe a hulɗar kasuwanncin shige da fice.” Ya bayyana.

A duk wani ƙoƙari na majiyarmu wurin samun Daraktan riƙon ƙwarya na hulɗar sadarwan Bankin CBN, Isaac Okoroafor ya ci tura. Kuma bai amsa ko biyo kiran da aka yi masa ba. Yayin da majiyar tamu ta tura masa saƙon kar ta kwana. Sai Mista Okoroafor ya turo da saƙo inda yake tambayar cewa; “shin laifi ne Bankin CBN ya bai wa gwamnati kuɗi domin yin ayyuka?” Amma da ake tunasar da shi akan cewa; kuɗin da ake fitarwa ya saɓawa dokokin Bankin na CBN, sai ya amsa da cewa; “ba zan amsa waɗannan zarge-zarge ba ko zance mara tushe. Kawai abin da zance shi ne; babu rashin bin doka a kuɗaɗen da Bankin CBN ke bai wa gwamnatin tarayya.”

A wani bayaninsa dake cikin rahoton zaman MPC, Gwamnan Bankin CBN wanda yake shi ne shugaban kwamitin, ya bayyana cewa; a yi haƙuri da kuma kyakkyawan fata dangane da tattalin arzikin. Sannan ya tabbatar da yadda gwamnati ke karɓar kuɗaɗe a irin wani yanayi wanda bai yi ƙarin bayani a kai ba.

Mista Emefiele ya tabbatar da cewa; “ɗimbin bashin da gwamnati take karɓayana ƙaruwa saboda yadda ake samun karɓar kuɗin da ya wuce wanda take da shi, kuma wannan yana haifar wa ɓangarori masu zaman kansu suna tsere wa da yawan gaske cikin ƙanƙanin lokaci.”

Sai dai yana da fatan cewa; “idan har gwamnati ta yi nasara wajen rage kayan buƙatu da rage kashe kuɗaɗe ta hanyar kuɗaɗen da take samu, ina mai hasashen yadda waɗannan ɓangarori masu zaman kansu za su dawo a tsakankanin lokacin nan da nan gaba.”

Gwamnan Bankin na CBN ya zargi wasu da kuma kansa da tsarin da CBN ke bi a matsayin sune dalilan dake haifar da hauhawar farashi da karyewar darajar Naira da kuma matsalolin da ake samu a ɓangaren kasuwancin shige da fice. Sannan ya ce; “kamar yadda na bayyana da farko, abubuwan da muke son magance wa da kawo ƙarshen su sun haɗa da; matsalar kasuwancin shige da fice, (yana faruwa ne saboda matsalar tattalin arziki da ƙarancin man fetur), hauhawar farashin kaya, riƙe kuɗin wasu ma’aikata na wasu lokuta da makamantan su.” Inji shi.

 

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