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Ka San Jikinka

Garkuwar Jikin Dan Adam (2)

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Cigaba daga makon jiya.

‘Yan uwa masu karatu Assalam alaikum. Barkan mu da wannan lokaci, barkan mu da sake saduwa a wannan shafi mai ilmintarwa, da ke zayyano mu ku bayanai game da jikin dan adam, domin ku fa’idantu kuma ku ilmintu, ku san yadda jikinku ke aiki.

Satin da ya gabata, mun dau garkuwar jikin dan adam domin yin bayani akai. Jikin dan adam mai dauke da kwayar halitta dai dai har tiriliyan dari, yana bukatar dakarun tsaro na musamman masu matukar karfi da hikima wajen kare shi daga ta’annatin kwayoyin cuta, wadanda kan lahanta lafiya, har ma su kan yi kisa a wasu lokutan.

A rubutun makon jiya, na tsaya a inda nake cewa: akwai shimfida ta tantani a gabban dake cikin jiki, inda suke bada kariya ko garkuwa a bigiren da Allah ya ajiye su.

Misalin inda ake samu wadannan shimfidu na tantani sun hadar da:- hanyoyin iska ko numfashi (hanci, makogwaro, akwatun murya, bututun iska da rassansa) da kuma hanyar abinci (baki, bututun abinci, tumbi, karamin hanji, uwar hanji, har zuwa dubura).

NA BIYU: su ne jami’an tsaro masu kai-kawo. A jikin dan adam, halittun da ke gudanar da wannan aiki suna amfani ne da ‘wutar chaji’ ko ince makamashin kuzari da su ke samu daga jiki, shi kuma jiki yake samu daga abinci, da taimakon numfashi domin jiki yaci moriyar amfanin abincin. Bugu da kari, su wadannan jami’ai su na samar da sinadarai na kemikal domin yaki da ‘yan kai hari da mayaka da ‘yan leken asirin jiki’ , kamar dai yadda ba ka rasa jami’an tsaro na zahiri da kayan aiki irinsu kulki, bindiga, ankwa, harsashi da sauransu; to su ma haka jami’an tsaro na jikin dan adam su ke da tsari da shiri na fatattakar makiya. Kaji ikon Allah!

Bari na dan karkatar da hankali na izuwa cibiyar kamfanin dake bawa jikin dan adam garkuwa daga cututuka,ta hanyar tace ruwan dake cikin jini tare da cafke kwayoyin cutuka da sukayi nasarar shiga jikin dan adam. Wannan kamfani ana kiransa da “Lymphatic System” da turanci.
Tsarinsa da zubin aikinsa kamar na jijiyoyin jini yake, ma’ana, shima wannan kamfani, hadaka ne na jijiyoyi masu dauke da wani ruwa mai garai garai wanda kemikals din da ke cikinsa, irinsu ne a jini.

Wannan sashe zan iya cewa yana aiki ne irin na kwalbati, wato karbar ruwan jiki da ke tsakankanin kwayoyin halittun jiki, da zagayawa da wannan ruwa ta cikin jijiyoyi na musamman wadanda su ka tike a jijiyoyin jini na “beins”. Wato ruwan jikin da aka dauko, ana zuba shi ne a cikin jini.

Kafin nayi nisa a cikin bayani game da wannan kamfani na “Lymphatic System”, bari na kawo wani bayani mai kayatarwa.

*Wannan kamfani ya na mayar da ruwan jikin da ke tsakankanin kwayoyin halittu izuwa cikin jini. Yawan ruwan da yake mayarwa ya kai Lita uku a kowacce rana, kimanin yawan ruwan ledar “pure water” guda shida.

A kowanne lokaci, jini a cikin kewaya jiki ya ke ta hanyoyinsa da ake kira “blood bessels”. Idan zaku iya tunawa, kwayoyin halittar jiki a kewaye suke da ruwan jiki, a cikinsa suke wanka. Wato kamar dai ace ma an zuba aya a cikin kofi, an kawo ruwa an zuba, haka suma kwayoyin halittar jikin mutum su ke acikin ruwan jiki.

Zuciya ta na daddagewa ta angizo jini cikin jijiyoyi manya da matsakaita, daga nan kuma sai jinin ya shiga izuwa kanan hanyoyin jini, daga nan har zuwa ‘yan kanana da ake kira “capillaries”. Su capillaries su ne ke hada dangantaka tsakanin hanyoyin jini wadanda suka baro zuciya, da kuma wadanda ke komawa zuciya.

Zan ba ku misali yadda zaku fahimci hakan: dauki hannunka na dama a matsayin jijiyoyin jinin da suka baro zuciyarka. Yanzu shigar da yatsun hannunka na dama cikin alawus na yatsun hannunka na hagu, kalli tafukan hannun naka. Wannan shi ne misalin yadda “capillaries” ke hada hanyoyin jinin “arteries” da kuma”beins”. Hannunka na hagu, shi ne a matsayin hanyoyin jini masu komawa izuwa zuciya wato “beins.”

Lokacin da jini yake wucewa ta “capillaries”, ruwan jini wanda ake kira da “plasma”, yana kurdawa ya bar jini ya ratsa izuwa tsakankanin kwayoyin halittar jiki. To ana ne ‘kamfanin’ “Lymphatic system” ya shigo cikin wannan batu, domin kuwa shi yake zuke wannan ruwa tare da mayar dashi cikin jini. Za muga karin bayani nan gaba kadan.

Kamar yadda kuka gani, wannan rukuni na jiki mai kula da garkuwa, yana da tsarin kare jiki ta hanyoyi na zahiri kamar su fata, fararen kwayoyin jini, wadanda duk na yi bayaninsu a lokutan da suka shude.

Bayan wadancan hanyoyi, sahihiyar hanyar da sashen garkuwar jiki ke bi wajen yaki da cututtuka na da ban mamaki. Awkai kemikals da ake samarwa domin su rumurmusa cututtuka, ko kuma a tura dakarun fararen jini, da halittun makrofej su dinga hadiye kwayoyin tare da narkar da su.

Wani abin birgewa da garkuwar jikin dan adam, shi ne rashin mantuwa! Wato rike bayani, siffa, da yanayin duk wata cuta da ta taba shiga jikin dan adam. Yin hakan zai sa garkuwar jiki ta adana bayanan wannan cuta a cikin kundin adana bayanan jiki, tare da kuma kirkirar ‘makashi’ wanda a duk sanda irin wannan cuta ta sake kuskuren shiga jikinn dan adam, to ta gama yawo.
Kamfanin garkuwar jikin dan adam yana da halittu da gabbai da suke aiki tare wajen tabbatar da kariya a jiki. Amma kafin nan, yana da kyau musan yadda Sarkin halitta ya tsara wannan kamfani.

Idan mu ka dauki kamfanin da ke kula da jini da zagayawarsa a jiki, za mu ga cewa akwai zuciya, akwai jijiyoyin arteries masu daukar jini daga zuciya izuwa sassan jiki. Su wadannan hanyoyin jini akwai manya,matsakaita da kanana; akwai kuma ‘yan kananan jijiyoyin jini da ake kira “capillaries”. Su kuma “capillaries” sune suke hadewa da kanana, matsakaita, da manyan jijiyon jini masu mayar da jini izuwa zuciya wadanda ake kiransu da “beins”.

To shima kamfanin garkuwar jiki kusan haka yake; sai dai shi babu zuciya wadda zata harba wannan ruwa mai garai-garai izuwa inda ake bukata. Akwai jijiyoyinsa ana kiransu “Lymph bessels”, akwai kuma shi kansa ruwan ana kiransa “lymph”, da kuma wasu halittu masu kama da gujiya da ake kira “lymph nodes”.

Da Hausa, wadannan halittu masu kama da gujiya su muke kira da kaluluwa. A jikin dan adam, ana samun kaluluwa a gurare kamar wuya, hammata, kirji (kusa da mama), matsematsi (tsakanin cinyoyi). Ana kuma samun kaluluwa kewaye dakayan ciki: misali ‘ya yan hanji).
Ga bayanin yadda wadannan sassa guda uku suke haduwa: a gurare daban daban, akwai kaluluwa a dunkule: kamar guda uku ko sama da haka.

Jijiyoyin “lymphatic bessels” kamar uku ko sama da haka suna ratsawa ta cikin kaluluwa, daga nan kuma guda daya ko biyu suna fita daga cikinta. Idan Allah ya kaimu sati mai zuwa, zamu ga yadda wasu gabbai na musamman suke taimakawa wajen tabbatar da garkuwa a jikin dan adam.

‘Yan uwa, ku tara a mako mai zuwa da Yardar Sarkin halitta, domin ci gaba da bayani akan Garkuwar jikin dan adam.




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