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Ma’anar Wasu Sabbin Fasahar Zamani (I)

Fasahar Zamani

A matsayinmu na wadanda muke rayuwa a wannan zamani na ‘Information age’ ya kamata mu san sababbin fasahohin da suke tashe a yanzu da kuma inda ake amfani dasu da makamantansu. Akwai fasahohi da dama wadanda suka jima suna ‘edisting’ amma a nan da dama daga cikinmu bamu sansu ba, saboda dama gwamnatin kasar tamu ba ta bawa computer sciences da Technology muhimmanci take ba, ballantana ma a yi tunanin kawo wani ‘course’ domin amfanuwar jama’a. A yau a Nijeriya ba na tunanin akwai wani course na wadannan bangrori da suka wuce computer engineering, computer science, information technology da cyber security. Su din ma a zahirin gaskiya ba wani samun ingantaccen ilimi ake a kansu ba koda a jami’a ne.

A yau, hasashe ya nuna technology shi ne zai zama lamba daya na tattalin arziki a duniya, duk da ma ya zama a wasu kasashen da suka cigaba. Technology ya shiga kowane ‘field’ a duniya ta yadda ya zama karfen kafa a inda yake bawa taimako ta bangarori da dama. Da a ce za a dauke technology a duniya da yanzu sai dai mu koma karni na 10 ko na 11, saboda tsananin ci bayan da za a samu, sannan kuma za a yi asarar sama da rabi na dukiyar duniya gaba daya. Technology ya zama ruwan dare a inda ya shahara a dukkanin fanni, kuma daman da yake yana tafiya da ‘modern sciences’ sai ya zamanto cewa yana kutsa kowane sashe ba kakkautawa.

Dan haka akwai bukatar mu san wadanne fasahohi ne suke tashe a duniya, menene aikinsu, yaya suke, sannan wane irin hasashe ne akeyi a kansu?

A irin wannan ankararwar ce wani yakan samu wata fasahar da tayi masa sai ya fadada bincike akai, daga karshe ma ya fada cikinta tsundum a hankali a hankali kuwa har ya zama gwani.

Daga cikin fasahohin zamani wadanda suke tashe a yanzu a duniya, kuma ya kamata a ce mun san su akwai:

  1. Artificial Intelligence (AI) – Wannan fasaha ta kwana biyu a duniya saboda ta samo asali ne tun a shekarar 1950’s idan muka danganta ta da ubanta wato John McCharthy, sai dai bata fara wanzuwa ta zama mai amfani da kuma tafiya da zamani ba sai a karni na 21. Wannan fasaha ta ta’allaka ne ga kirkirar wasu ‘algorithms’ da models wadanda zasu iya bawa computer damar yin wasu abubuwa kamar dan Adam; misali kamar tunani, yanke shawara, nazari, da sauran yadda dan Adam zai fahimci abu. Kamar yadda ya zo a tsare, fasahar AI ita ce ‘5th generation’ na tarihin computer domin tafiya da zamani wajen kirkirar computers masu kama da mutane.

Wannan fasaha ta shiga bangarori da dama wadanda suka hada da ‘cognitibe psychology’ da brain science; domin sanin yadda kwakwalwa take mu’amala da gangar jiki da zuciya, mathematics; domin gina fikirar lissafi, computer science; domin gina algorithms da implementing dinsu a programming languages; da kuma statistics domin fahimtar bayanai da yadda computer za ta yi ta’ammulli da su. Kudirin wannan fasaha na cewa ana so a bawa na’ura fikira, basira da kuma hankali irin na dan Adam abu ne wanda yake bukatar daukan tsawon lokaci ana nazari da kuma bincike a kansa.

Sai dai kuma hatta wasu wadanda suke a field din technology sunyi wa fasahar ‘AI’ gurguwar fahimta a inda suke tsammani cewa AI wata na’ura ce mai zaman kanta. A’a bayani mafi dacewa shi ne fasaha ce kawai, a saukake mu ce “set of algorithms” ne wadanda za su yi ruwa-da-tsaki wajen ganin sun aiwatar da abin da ake so su yi a cikin na’ura wanda shi ne kwaikwayon fikirar dan Adam. Misali mutane suna dauka ‘robot’ shi ne misalin AI. Eh haka ne wannan misali ne, amma fa akwai robots din da basu da fasahar AI, kamar yadda akwai mutanen da suka rasa ‘common sense’, amma takan iya yiwuwa suna da ‘decision-making ability’. A nan mun fahimci kenan fasahar AI tarin algorithms ne wadanda ake sarrafa su domin aiki a cikin na’ura. Misali zaka iya kiran AI edpert domin ya sa wa motarka wata fasaha a cikin fasahohin AI ta yadda zata rinka yin wasu abubuwa na musamman. Misali, mota ta tuka kanta, kula/tsare da kanta da sauransu.

Bayan haka shi kansa AI din babban fage ne na fasaha wanda ya kunshi sashina da dama, kamar su:

  1. Natural Language Processing (NLP) – wannan fasahar ta AI tana dealing da ba wa computer wata kebabbiyar fikirar da zata rinka fahimtar yarukan dan Adam kamar Hausa, Kanuri, English, Fulani, Spanish, Ibo, Yoruba dss. Tunda mun sani sarai cewa computer ita kanta bata iya gane turanci har sai an tsara ta a kansa an bata damar gane shi, to yanzu so ake a bata damar da zata iya fahimtar sauran yarukan dan Adam kamar yadda mutum zai koya a cikin al’umma. Kaga wannan ni’ima ce da Allah ya ba wa dan Adam kai tsaye, to yanzu sai akeso a kwaikwaye ta a ba wa computer ma.

Alhamdulillah na san wani dan Arewa da yake karantar wannan course din (NLP) a M.Sc nasa a kasar waje, wannan cigaba ne sosai.

  1. Pattern Recognition – wannan kuma tana dealing da bawa computer damar da zata iya tuna abu (recognition) kamar hoto, zane, sa hannu, fuska, sauti ko murya ko wani abu na mutum ta yadda zata iya tunawa kuma ta gane na wane ne. Kamar yanzu idan na sa hannu a littafi sai na nuna mata nace wannan sa hannu na ne, kada ki manta. To bayan kwana biyu idan na yi irin wannan sa hannun zata iya ganewa cewa ni nayi. Ko kuma idan ta ga hoto na a wani wajen ko jin murya ta, ta tace wannan wane ne da sauransu. A karkashin wannan sashe akwai computer bision – inda computer zata gane hoto/bideo ta yadda zata iya gani kamar mutum, boice recognition – gane/tuna murya ko sauti, da kuma pattern recognition din kansa wanda ya hada da gane sa hannu, rubutu ko wani abu na dan Adam.

iii. Machine Learning/Deep Learning – wato machine learning (ML) wata fasaha ce karkashin babban fage na AI da take kokarin bawa computer wata dama da computer ita da kanta zata iya koyan abu ba tare da sai an koya mata ko an tsara mata yadda za tayi ba. Kamar yadda mutum yake koyan abu ko da ba a koya masa shi ba, to haka computer zata koyi abu. Kamar kawai tayi la’akari da cewa kana tashi kullum da karshen dare kana yin sahur a watan Ramadan. To idan ta fahimci wannan ko da a ce wani Azumi yazo (za tayi la’akari da tsawon shekarun da kayi kana seta alarm) kuma baka seta alarm din ba, to ita da kanta za ta seta, ta tashe ka saboda ta koya cewa ai kana tashi, to bari ta taimaka maka, watakila ka manta ne.

Wannan fasaha ta ML a hakikanin gaskiya tana tashe a duniya kwarai, da kuma ‘yar’uwarta ‘Deep Learning’ (DL) wacce suke kama, sai dai kuma ita DL tana dealing ne da ‘neural networks’ wato dai kamar yadda asalin neurons na kwakwalwar mutum yake aiki. Ana ikirarin cewa za tayi aiki tsaf kusan kamar yadda kwakwalwar mutum take yi ta bangaren abubuwa kamar tunani, nazari, shauki, da kuma hankalin sanin daidaiton abu ko rashinsa (conscience).

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