Tarihin Kafuwar Wasannin ‘Olympics’

Jama’a, ko kun san cewa ranar 23 ga watan Yuni na kowace shekara, ita ce ranar musamman da aka kebe domin tunawa da kafuwar wasannin Olympics na zamani?

Dalilin da ya sa aka kebe wannan rana shi ne domin a daidaita ta da shekarar 1894, lokacin da aka kafa wasannin Olympics na zamani, bisa kwaikwayon asalinsa, wato gasar motsa jiki ta Olympics ta tsohuwar Girka, a birnin Paris na kasar Faransa.

Babban kwamitin shirya gasar Olympics na IOC ya kebe wannan rana a shekarar 1948, tare da burin karfafa wa mutanen duniya gwiwa, su kara shiga a dama da su a harkoki masu alaka da wasannin motsa jiki.

Tarihi game da yadda aka kebe ranar Olympics

Lokacin da aka kaddamar da bikin ranar Olympics a karon farko a shekarar 1894, an samu wasu kasashen da suka halarci bikin da ya gudana, wadanda suka hada da Portugal, Girka, Austria, Canada, Switzerland, Birtaniya, Uruguay, Benezuela, da Belgium. Daga bisani a kowace shekara, kwamitocin Olympics na kasashe da yankuna daban daban, su kan gudanar da bukukuwan taya murna tsakanin ranekun 17 zuwa 24 ga watan Yuni. Mun riga mun ambaci yadda wasu kasashe 9 suka fara shirya irin wannan biki. Zuwa yanzu, adadin kasashen da suke gudanar da irin wannan bukukuwa ya kai fiye da 100.

Sa’an nan a wajen wadannan bukukuwan da ake shiryawa domin tunawa da ranar da aka kafa wasannin Olympics, da kwamitin Olympics, ayyukan da a kan gudanar sun hada da wasannin gudu, wadanda ake kiransu “Olympic Day Run” a Turance.

Bikin “Olympic Day Run”

A shekarar 1987, don neman sanya karin kungiyoyi masu aikin sa kai, su halarci bukukuwan tunawa da kafuwar wasannin Olympics, wani sashi mai kula da aikin yayata wasannin motsa jiki, karkashin kwamitin Olympics ya gabatar da bikin, wanda kowa zai iya halarta na Gudu a ranar Olympics; wato “Olympic Day Run” a bakin Turawa. Don halartar wannan biki, ba a bukatar samun kwarewa a fannin wasannin motsa jiki. Masu lafiyar jiki ko nakasassu, tsoffi ko yara, dukkansu za su iya halarta, domin gudun na da buri daya, wato kayatarwa.

A Gudun ranar Olympics na farko da aka gudanar a shekarar 1987, an shirya yin gudun nisan da ya kai kilomita 10, inda aka samu kasashe 45 da suka gudanar da irin wannan biki. Zuwa shekarar 2006, wasu kasashe 161 sun gudanar da bikin Gudun ranar Olympics. Zuwa yanzu bikin da ya kan gudana tsakanin ranekun 17 zuwa 24 ga watan Yuni, ya shafi gudun tsawon kilomita 1.5, da na kilomita 5, da kuma na kilomita 10.

An kasa gudun zuwa iri daban daban ne don biyan bukatun mutane iri-iri, don sanya karin jama’a su halarci wannan biki, tare da samun karin damammakin yayata ruhi na Olympics.

Hukuma mai kula da bukukuwan ranar Olympics

Hukuma mai kula da bukukuwan da ake gudanarwa a ranar Olympics, gami da wasannin Olympics da ake gudanarwa a duk shekaru biyu-biyu, inda ake sauyawa tsakanin wasannin lokacin zafi da na lokacin hunturu, ita ce kwamitin Olympics ta kasa da kasa, wato IOC. An kafa wannan kwamiti a shekarar 1894, wanda ke da hedkwatarsa a birnin Paris na kasar Faransa. Bayan da babban yakin duniya na farko ya barke a shekarar 1914, an dauke hedkwatar kwamitin IOC zuwa birnin Lausanne na kasar Switzerland, ganin yadda kasar take da matsayin ‘yar “ba-ruwana”, wato ba za ta shiga cikin yakin duniya ba kwata kwata.

Zuwa yanzu, idan an isa birnin, za a iya ganin wurin ajiye kayayyakin tarihi masu alaka da wasannin Olympics, da cibiyar nazarin wasannin Olympics, gami da wasu tituna da dakunan motsa jiki, da aka sanya musu take da sunan Pierre de Coubertin, mutumin da ya samar da gudunmowa sosai ga kokarin kafa wasannin Olympics na zamani.

Pierre de Coubertin, “Mahaifin” wasannin Olympics

An haifi Pierre de Coubertin a shekarar 1863 a kasar Faransa. Dukkan iyayensa na da matsayi na sarakai. Kuma babansa wani shahararren mai fasahar zane-zane ne. Saboda muhallin mai kyau da iyayensa suka ba shi, Pierre ya samu isassun damammaki wajen koyon ilimi da fasahohin al’adu. Tun yana karami ya iya zane-zane, da sarrafa kayan kida na Piano, ban da haka kuma, yana sha’awar wasan tseren doki, da tseren kwale-kwale, da wasan takobi, da na dambe, da dai sauransu. Sa’an nan a makaranta, ya nuna sha’awa sosai kan al’adun tsohuwar Girka, inda aka taba gudanar da wasannin Olympics na gargajiya a can baya. Sa’an nan ya tafi kasar Birtaniya domin koyon karin ilimi a fannin aikin koyarwa, inda ya karbi ra’ayin wani shehun malami na kasar Birtaniya mai suna Thomas Arnold, wanda ya mai da hankali matuka kan sanya matasa su shiga cikin wasannin motsa jiki. A ganin Thomas Arnold, wasan motsa jiki na baiwa matasa damar daidaita halayyarsu, da koyon ilimi da kansu. Daga nan Pierre de Coubertin ya fara nazarin tsarin da Birtaniya ta dauka a fannin hada aikin koyar da ilimi, da wasannin motsa jiki a cikin makaranta. Haka kuma ya nuna fatan ganin kasar Faransa ita ma ta dauki wannan tsari, domin kyautata lafiyar jikin dalibai, da sanya su zama mutane masu karfin zuciya, wadanda suke iya jure wahala.

Bayan da ya koma kasar Faransa, ya rubuta littattafai da yawa don yayata tsarin koyar da ilimi mai ci gaba na kasar Birtaniya, da neman raya wasannin motsa jiki a kasar Faransa.

Daga bisani, masu nazarin tarihi na kasashen Turai sun yi ta gano wasu kayayyakin tarihi masu alaka da tsoffin wasannin Olympics a kasar Girka, tsakanin shekarun 1875 zuwa 1881. Wannan batu dai ya janyo hankalin Pierre de Coubertin sosai. Da ma ya yi ayyuka da yawa wajen neman raya wasannin motsa jiki, amma daga nan ya fara yin kira da a farfado da wasannin Olympics, domin a ganinsa ta hanyar yayata ruhun Olympics ne za a iya samun damar raya wasannin motsa jiki a kasashe daban daban. Daga bisani, a shekarar 1892, shi Coubertin ya yi wani jawabi, inda a karon farko ya gabatar da ra’ayinsa na “farfado da wasannin Olympics”. Bisa kiran da ya yi, an bude wani taron wasannin motsa jiki na kasa da kasa a birnin Paris a shekarar 1894, inda aka yanke shawarar kaddamar da wasannin Olympics na zamani na farko a kasar Girka, wanda za a dinga gudanar da shi duk shekaru hudu-hudu. Sa’an nan a ranar 23 ga watan Yuni na shekarar 1894, aka kafa kwamitin Olympics na kasa da kasa, inda Pierre de Coubertin ya zama babban sakataren kwamitin. Irin gudunmowar da Pierre de Coubertin ya samar, a kokarin kafa wasannin Olympics na zamani, ya sa ake kiransa da lakabin “mahaifin wasannin Olympics na zamani”. Akwai wasu maganganun da ya yi wadanda suka yadu a tsakanin jama’a sosai. Ga misali, “Halarta ya fi samun nasara muhimmanci”, da “wasan motsa jiki ya yi daidai da zaman lafiya”, da dai sauransu.

Ruhin Olympics

“Ruhin Olympics” take ne na wani jawabin da Pierre de Coubertin ya yi a shekarar 1919, a bikin taya murnar cika shekaru 25 da farfado da wasannin Olympics. Inda Coubertin ya bayyana bambancin dake tsakanin ruhin Olympics da na sauran wasanni. A ganinsa, wasanni suna kayatar da mutane, amma wasannin Olympics sun sa an samu kayatarwa, gami da alfahari. Cikin jawabinsa, Coubertin ya bayyana dalilin da ya sa ya yi kokarin neman farfado da wasannin Olympics, wanda shi ne burinsa na daidaita tsarin koyar da ilimi a cikin makarantu. A cewarsa, ba ya jin dadin tsoffin hanyoyin da ake bi wajen koyar da ilimi ga matasa, inda ake yi musu matsin lamba sosai, da rashin daidaito bisa fasahohin da ake horar musu. Ya ce ya taba nazarin wasannin Olympics na gargajiya. A ganinsa, jama’ar Girka ta baya sun gudanar da gasar wasannin motsa jiki ne, ba domin kyautata lafiyar jikin mutum, da kayatar da masu kallo kawai ba. Abin da ya fi muhimmanci da suke lura da shi, shi ne aikin tarbiya. A cewar Coubertin, makasudin gudanar da wasannin Olympics na gargajiya, shi ne neman daidaita halayyar matasa ta hanyar wasannin motsa jiki. Wannan makasudi ya dace da ra’ayin Coubertin game da wasan motsa jiki.

Game da dabarun da za a iya bi domin mayar da ruhin Olympics ya zama gaskiya, Coubertin ya ce abin da ya fi muhimmanci shi ne sanya kowa ya iya shiga a dama da shi. Ko wane mutum wanda ba shi da matsayi, shi ma ya kamata a ba shi damar jin dadin motsa jiki. A ganinsa, duk da cewa wasannin Olympics sun shafi gasa da takara, amma ainihin makasudin wasannin shi ne sanya ‘yan Adam samun damar kyautata lafiyar jiki, da halayyarsu, maimakon samun lambar yabo kawai.

Sai dai mene ne ma’anar tushe ta ruhin Olympics? A cewar Coubertin, ma’anar ruhin ita ce: a koyi darasi daga tarihin bil Adama, sa’an nan a yi kokarin samar da makoma mai kyau a nan gaba. Bisa wannan ruhi, in ji Coubertin, za a iya taimakawa samun zaman lafiya, da daidaito, da kuma baiwa matasa karin damammakin samun ilimi.

(Bello Wang, ma’aikacin sashen Hausa na CRI)

 

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