Tutsun Da Aka Yi Wa Dimokuradiyyar Nijeriya Tun Daga Samun ‘Yancin Kai

Nijeriya

Daga Yusuf Shuaibu

Nijeriya ta samu ‘yancin kai ne a ranar 1 ga watan Oktobar 1960 daga Turawar mulkin mallaka na kasar Ingila. An samar da kundin tsarin mulki a karkashin tsarin tarayya wanda aka sami firayim minista da kuma shugaban kasa.

Jam’iyyar NCNC karkashin shugabancin Azikiwe wacce ta yi hadaka da jam’iyyar NPC karkashin shugabancin Tafawa Balewa ta lashe zaben 1959. Inda Balewa ya kasance firayim minista, yayin da Azikiwe ya zama shugaban kasa.

Tutsu na farko da tsarin shugabanci na dimokuradiyyar Nijeriya ya samu shi ne juyin mulkin sojoji a karkashin shugabancin Manjo Janar Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, inda aka jefa harkokin siyasa cikin mawuyacin hali. A watan Yulin 1966, an sake samun juyin mulki wanda ya yi sanadiyyar kifar da gwamnatin Aguiyi-Ironsi, inda Janaral Yakubu Gowon ya hau karagar mulki. Sai dai an samu rikici a tsakanin yankin Arewaci da Kudanci wanda ya haddasa yakin basasaa a ranar 30 ga watan Mayun 1967, lokacin da Janar Odumegwu Ojukwu ya nemi kafa kasar Biafra.

Yakubu Gowon ya samu nasarar shawo kan rikicin wanda ya yi alkawarin mika mulki ga farar hula. Gowon bai samu nasarar mika mulki ga farar hula ba, domin an kifar da gwamnatinsa a watan Yulin 1975, inda aka samu sabon shugaban kasa, Birgediya Janar Murtala Ramat Mohammed, wanda ya hadu da matsaloli lokacin da ya hau karagar mulki har ya fara shirin dawo da Babbar birnin Tarayya Abuja tare da kokarin magance rashin daidaituwar gwamnatinsa da yin alkawarin mika mulki ga farar hula. Sai dai burinsa bai cika ba, domin kuwa an kashe shi a wani yunkurin juyin mulki wanda bai yi nasara ba a watan Fabrairun 1976, inda hakan ya sa Janar Olusegun Obasanjo hawa karagar mulki.

Jamhuriya Ta Biyu

 

Obasanjo ya ci gaba da aiwatar da Muradin Murtala wajen ganin kasar nan ta koma hannun farar hula. A wannan lokaci ne aka samar da jam’iyyun siyasa masu yawa a Nijeriya, amma guda biyar kacal ne aka yi wa rijista. Inda a zaben 1979, jam’iyyar PRP wacce ta tsayarda Shehu Shagari a matsayin dantakarar shugaban kasa ta samu nasara wanda ta doke jam’iyyar NPN da ta tsayar da Cif Obafemi Awolowo.

Shugaban jam’iyyar NPN ya yi amfani da karfin siyasa wajen tunzura magoya bayansa domin kin jinin gwamnati mai ci. Mutane sun fusata sakamakon matsalolin da aka samu a cikin dimokuradiyya tare da neman samun shugaba da zai inganta rayukansu da samar da karfin mulki. ‘Yan siyasa sun zargi Gwamnatin Shagari da kasa magance matsalolin siyasa da na tattalin arziki, inda sojoji suka yi amfani da wannan dama wajen yin juyin mulki a ranar 31 ga watan Disambar 1983, wanda Janar Muhammad Buhari ya dare karagar mulki.

Buhari ya samu nasarar daukan matakin da aka samu a jamhuriya ta biyu tare da farfado da tattalin arziki. Ya ayyana yaki da rashin da’a wanda a karkashi ya garkame ‘yansiyasa da dama a gidan yari. Ana haka ne Janar Ibrahim Babangida ya tuntsurar da shi a watan Agustan shekarar 1985.

Babangida ya yi alkawarin cewa majalisar mulkin soja za ta rika yanke hukunci ne bisa abubuwan da mutane suke bukata. Mutane sun nemi a kawo karshen mulkin soja, inda Babangida ya goyi bayan dawo da mulki ga farar hula wanda ya gindaya sharudda. Gwamnati ta kafa jam’iyyun siyasa guda biyu kacal, jam’iyyar SDP da kuma jam’iyyar NRC, a wannan lokaci an kyale ‘yansiysa da dama shiga harkokin siyasa. Wannan ya faranta ran masu fatan ganin mulkin dimokuradiyya.

Sai dai kash! Dimokuradiyyar ta sake samun tutsu yayin da Babangida ya soke zaben fidda gwani da ya gudana a shekarar 1992, inda aka dakatar da dukkan ‘yantakara daga shiga harkokin siyasa. Daga bisani dai an shirya zabe a watan Yunin 1993 tsakanin ‘yantakara biyu, Cif M.K.O Abiola na jam’iyyar SDP da kuma Alhaji Bashir Tofa na jam’iyyar NRC. An gudanar da sahihin zabe wanda Abiola ya samu nasara, amma daga baya gwamnatin Babangida ta rusa. Wannan ya janyo ka-ce-na-ce, har ya yi sanadiyyar tilasta wa Babangida barin karagar mulki a watan Agustan shekarar 1993, inda ya mika mulki ga gwamnatin rikon kwarya a karkashin Cif Ernest Adekunle Shonekan. Du-du-du bai kai ga cika wata uku kwarara ba (daga 26 ga Agusta zuwa 17 ga Nuwambar 1993), Janar Sani Abacha ya hambare shi, lamarin da ya zama karin wani tutsu ga dimokuradiyyar Nijeriya.

Kamar dai Babangida, Abacha ya yi alkawarin mayar da mulki hannun farar hula, amma sai ya zo da dabarar neman tazarce daga mulkin soja zuwa ta farar hula. Burinsa bai cika ba yayin da mutuwa ta yi masa shigar sauri a 1998. Wannan ya kuma sake kawo tutsu ga shirin komawa dimokuradiyya domin soja ne, Janar Abdulsalam Abubakaar ya gaje shi tare da alkawarin zai mayar da mulki ga farar hula.

Ya saki ‘yasiyasar da aka daure a gidan yari tare da kawo karshen cin zarafin abokan hamayya a siyasance da kum shirya jadawalin yadda mulki zai koma hannun farar hula.

Dawowar Mulki Hannun Farar Hula A 1999

Bayan mutuwar Abacha, an samu karuwar harkokin siyasa wanda aka samar da jam’iyyu masu yawa, inda jam’iyyar PDP da APP suka gwabza a zaben da ya gudana a tsakanin watan Janairu da Maris, 1999, tun daga zabukan kananan hukumomi da na ‘yan majalisa na tarayya da na jiha da kuma na gwamnoni. An gudanar da zaben shugaban kasa ne a watan Fabrairu wanda ya samu sa idon ‘yan kasashen ketare. Daga karshe an bayyana sunan Olusegun Obasanjo na jam’iyyar PDP a matsayin wanda ya samu nasara.

 

An rantsar da Obasanjo ne a ranar 29 ga watan Mayun shekarar 1999, inda Nijeriya ta fita daga rikicin mulkin soja tare da kawo sauye-sauye a cikin harkokin gwamnati. Kamar dai farkon gwamnatin farar hula tun lokacin da kasar ta samu ‘yancin kai a 1960, an sake zaben Obasanjo a shekarar 2003, duk da yake akwai rahotannin da suke nuna zaben yana cike da rudani.

 

 

Rudanin Da Suka Dabaibaye Zaben Shugaban Kasa Na 2007

Obasanjo ya sha suka daga cikin gida Nijeriya da ma kasashen ketare wajen yunkurinsa na sauya kundin tsarin mulki domin tazarce a karo na uku, sai dai kuma majalisa ta yi fatali da kudurin gyaran kundin tsarin mulkin a 2006. Sakamakon kudurin Obasanjo bai cika ba, ya zabi Umaru Musa Yar’Adua a matsayin wanda zai tsaya takara a zaben shugaban kasa karkashin jam’iyyar PDP da ya gudana a watan Afrilun 2007. An dai bayyana shi a matsayin wanda ya yi nasara a zaben, amma masu sa ido na kasashen waje sun yi kakkausar suka game da zaben da ke cike da magudi. Amma duk da haka dai, an rantsar da Yar’Adua a matsayin shugaban kasa a ranar 29 ga watan Mayun shekarar 2007.

 

Yar’Adua ya yi fama da rashin lafiya da ya sa aka rika fitar da shi waje domin duba lafiyarsa, tun bayan da ya hau karagar mulki. An dai garzaya da shi kasar Saudiyya a watan Nuwambar shekarar 2009, domin yi masa magani kan ciwon zuciya da koda. Ya kasance ba ya Nijeriya na tsawan makonni wanda ya janyo takaddamar shugabanci a Nijeriya. An samu kiraye-kiraye kan Yar’Adua ya mika mulki ga mataimakinsa, Goodluck Jonathan. A ranar 9 ga watan Fabrairun 2010, majalisar kasa ta gudanar kuri’a wanda ya bai wa Jonathan zama mukaddashin shugaban kasa kafin Yar’Adua ya dawo daga jinya. Lokacin da Yar’adua ya dawo Nijeriya a ranar 24 ga watan Fabrairun 2010, Jonathan ya ci gaba da zama mukaddashi kafin Yar’adua ya murmure.

Sai dai Yar’Adua bai murmure ba, domin ya riga mu gidan gaskiya a ranar 5 ga watan Mayun shekarar 2010, inda nan take aka rantsar da Jonathan a matsayin shugaban kasa.

 

Zaben Shekarar 2011

An dai shirya za a gudanar da zaben ‘yanmajalisa a ranar 2 ga watan Afrilun shekarar 2011, amma sai aka samu tutsu, sakamakon rashin muhimman kayayyakin zabe, lamarin da ya tilasta dage zaben zuwa ranar 9 ga watan Afrilu, yayin da a wasu wuraren har sai da zaben ya kai ranar 26 ga watan Afriru.

 

Sakamakon haka, an dage zaben shugaban kasa wanda aka shirya za a gudanar a ranar 9 ga watan Afriru zuwa ranar 19 ga watan Afrilu. Daga bisani Jonathan ne ya lashe zaben shugaban kasa wanda ya samu kashi 59, inda ya doke Muhammadu Buhari da ya samu kashi 32. Masu sa ido daga kasashen ketare sun bayyana zaben a matsayin sahihi. Sai dai zaben ya hadu da rikici, inda magoya bayan Buhari daga yankin Arewa suka nuna rashin gamsuwarsu da zaben tare da zargin jam’iyyar PDP ta tafka magudi.

 

Zaben Shekarar 2015

Gwamnatin Jonathan ta kasa magance hare-haren kungiyar Boko Haram wanda shi ne muhimmin abun da ya sa aka dage zaben shugaban kasa da na ‘yanmajalisa a 2015. Buhari ya samu nasarar lashe zaben 2015 karkashin jam’iyyar APC. An rantsar da shi a ranar 29 ga watan Mayun 2015.

Zaben Shekarar 2019

An gudanar da zaben a watan Fabrairun 2019, inda aka samu ‘yantakarar shugaban kasa sama da 70. A cikin wadannan ‘yan takara, guda biyu ne suka yi kokarin kai labari wadanda suka hada da Buhari a jam’iyyar APC da kuma Atiku Abubakar wanda ya tsaya a jam’iyyar PDP. An dai shirya za a gudanar da zaben a ranar 16 ga watan Fabrairu, amma nan ma aka samu tutsu, sakamakon wasu matsaloli da Hukumar Zabe ta INEC ta ce sun auku. An dage zaben zuwa ranar 23 ga watan Fabrairu. Buhari ne ya sake lashe zaben wanda ya samu kuri’u da kashi 56, yayin da Atiku ya samu kashi 41.

An sake rantsar da Buhari kan karagar mulki karo na biyu a ranar 29 ga watan Mayun shekarar 2019.

Yayin da Nijeriya ke bikin cika shekara 61 da samun ‘yancin kai, ‘Yan Nijeriya da dama suna ci gaba da zura ido su ga yadda siyasar zabukan 2023 za ta kasance, da yake tuni wasu ‘yan siyasar har sun fara kada kugensu.

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