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Yadda Aka Rika Fataucin Bayi Da Harkokin Kasuwanci A Kabilar Mandinka

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Yankin bayi, kamawa da kasuwanci a yankuna na lardin Mandinka ya kasance yana da yawa a zamanin baya kafin Turawan mulkin mallaka na Turai, kamar yadda ya bayyana a cikin rubutattun wajan matafiya na kasar Moroccan da malamin tarihi Ibn Battuta. Bauta wani bangare ne na mutanen Mandinka da aka cuce su, kuma kalmomin yare da yawa na Mandinka, kamar Jong ko Jongo suna nufin bayi. Akwai masarautun Mandinke goma sha hudu a gefen Kogin Gambiya a cikin yankin Senegambia a farkon karni na 19, alal misali, inda bayi suka kasance sashin rayuwar jama’a a duk wadannan masarautu.
A cewar Toby Green, sayar da bayi tare da zinare tuni ya kasance wani muhimmin bangare na kasuwancin Saharan tsakanin Sahel tsakanin Yammacin Afirka da Gabas ta Tsakiya bayan karni na 13. Tare da isowar masu bincike na Fotigal a Afirka yayin da suke neman hanyar teku zuwa Indiya, sayan Turai da bayi ya fara. Fitar da bayi ta Portuguese, da farko daga mutanen Jolof, tare da wasu ‘yan Mandinka, sun fara ne a karni na 15, in ji Green, amma farkon shaidar kasuwancin da ta shafi bayi ta Mandinka daga da kuma bayan 1497 CE.Ya yi daidai da fara kasuwancin cinikin bayi na tekun Atlantika, harka da bayi da cinikin bayi na ‘yan Afirka ta yamma zuwa yankin tekun Bahar Rum da kuma cikin Afirka ya ci gaba a zaman wani al’ada ta al’ada.
Bautar ta girma sosai tsakanin karni na 16 zuwa 19. Fotigal din ya dauki hanyar bawa a Guinea da Senegambia wasu yankuna na lardin Mandinka a matsayin mallakar su, tare da takardu masu alaka da karni na 16 zuwa 16th wanda ke magana da “kasar Guinea” da kuma korafi game da jiragen ruwan Faransa da na Burtaniya da ke mamaye su. Bautar da bayin su daga wannan yankin ya ninka ninki biyu na rabin karni na 18 idan aka kwatanta da na farko, amma yawancin wadannan bayin sun sauka a Brazil.
Masana sun ba da ka’idoji da yawa game da tushen cinikin bayi na mutanen Mandinka. A cewar Boubacar Barry, farfesa a Tarihi da Nazarin Afirka, tashin hankali na rikice-rikice tsakanin kabilu kamar mutanen Mandinka da makwabta, hade da makaman da dillalan bayi suka siya da samun kudin shiga daga jiragen ruwa zuwa masu siyar bautar, ya ciyar da ayyukan kamun. masu tsere, da kamewa, da bayi. Ethnicungiyoyin da aka zalunta sun ji ance sunada fansa. Bauta ya rigaya ya zama abin yarda kafin karni na 15. Yayinda bukatar ta karu, jihohi Barry, Futa Jallon karkashin jagorancin ilimin kishin addini na Musulunci ya zama daya daga cikin cibiyoyin wannan cin zarafin bautar da ke ci gaba, yayin da Farim na Kaabu – ko kuma kwamandan mutanen Mandinka na Kaabu – suna matukar farautar bayin. Kaabu ya kasance, in ji Martin Klein – farfesa ne na Nazarin Afirka, daya daga cikin masu bautar bawan Afirka ga dillalan Turai.
Masanin tarihin Walter Rodney ya fadi cewa Mandinka da sauran kabilu sun riga sun sami bayi wadanda suka gaji bautar ta hanyar haihuwa, kuma wa za a sayar. Sojojin Islama daga Sudan sun dade suna tabbatar da aiwatar da hare-hare na bayi da kasuwanci. Fula jihad daga Futa Jallon plateau ya ci gaba da fadada wannan aikin. Wadannan jihadi sun kasance mafi girman samar da bayi ga ‘yan kasuwar Fotigal a tashoshin jiragen ruwa da mutanen garin Mandinka ke sarrafawa. Rikicin kabilancin da ba shi da tsaro, jihohi Rodney, sun dakatar da aiki ba tare da bata lokaci ba, wanda hakan ya sanya yanayin zamantakewa da tattalin arziki ke matsananciyar wahala, har ila yau sun shiga cikin daukar fansa na kai harin bayi da tashin hankali.


Walter Hawthorne – farfesa a Tarihin Afirka, ya fadi cewa bayanin Barry da Rodney ba gaskiya bane a duk fadin Senegambia da Guinea inda yawan mutanen Mandinka suke zaune. Hawthorne ya bayyana cewa adadi mai yawa na mutanen Mandinka sun fara zuwa bayi a cikin Fotigal, Faransanci da Britishcolonies a Caribbean da Kudancin Amurka, kawai tsakanin tsakiyar 18th zuwa karni na 19. A cikin wadannan shekarun, bayanan cinikin bayi sun nuna cewa kusan kashi 33% na bayi daga lardin Senegambia da Guinea-Bissau mutanen Mandinka ne. Hawthorne ya ba da dalilai uku na mutanen Mandinka da ke bayyana a matsayin bayi a wannan zamanin: kananan jihadi da musulmai ke yi wa Mandinka da ba na Musulmi ba, dalilai marasa addini kamar kyamar tattalin arzikin musulinci wadanda ke son shigo da su daga bakin tekun, da kuma harin da mutanen Fula ke kaiwa kan. Kaabu na Mandinka tare da haifar da tashin hankali.

Tattalin arziki

Mandinka, manoman manoma ne da ke ciyar da karkara da birane a cikin yankin Sahel wadanda suka dogara da gyada, shinkafa, gero, masara, da karancin kiwo. A lokacin noma, maza suna shuka gyada a matsayin babbar amfanin gona. Maza kuma suna girba gero kuma mata suna yin shinkafa (bisa ga al’ada, shinkafar Afirka), suna daukar tsirrai da hannu. Wannan aiki ne mai kima sosai kuma aiki ne mai wuya. Kusan kashi 50% na bukatun buhunan shinkafa ana biyan su ta hanyar yin shuka; sauran kuma an shigo da su ne daga Asiya da Amurka.
Namiji mafi tsufa shine shugaban iyali kuma an saba yin aure a tsakanin mazansu da matansu. kananan gidaje masu laka t sun fi yawa garuruwansu, ana yin su ne bisa tsarin kabilanci. Duk da yake harkar noma babbar sana’a ce a tsakanin ‘yan Mandinka, maza kuma suna aiki kamar dillalai, mahauta, direbobin tasi, masu aikin katako, ma’aikatan karfe, sojoji, ma’aikatan aikin jinya, da kuma ma’aikatan sa kai na hukumomin agaji. Koyaya, wanda yawancinsu mata ne, mai yiwuwa da kashi 95%, suna sha’awar gida, yara, da dabbobi kuma suna aiki tare da mazan a gona.
A yau, sama da kashi 99% na Mandinka Musulmai ne. Mandinkas karanta karatun surorin Kur’ani a cikin Larabci. Wasu Mandinka suna cakuda addinin Islama da kuma addinan Afirka na gargajiya. A cikin wadannan ruhohin ana iya sarrafawa ta hanyar ikon marinbout, wanda ya san tsarin kariya a bisa addininsu na gargajiya. A mafi yawan lokuta, babu yanke shawara mai mahimmanci ba tare da fara shawarwari kan ma’amala ba. Marabouts, wadanda ke da horarwar Musulunci, suna rubuta ayoyin Alkur’ani a jikin takarda da sanya su cikin adon fata (talisman); Wadannan suna sawa azaman kariya.
Tashi zuwa addinin Islama ya faru a karni da yawa. A cewar Robert Wyndham Nicholls, Mandinka a Senegambiya sun fara musulunta ne tun farkon karni na 17, kuma yawancin masu aikin fata na fata a can sun musulunta kafin karni na 19. Mawakan Mandinka, duk da haka sun kasance na karshe, sun musulunta galibi a farkon rabin karni na 20. Kamar sauran wurare, wadannan musulmai sun ci gaba da ayyukan addininsu na farko kafin addinin Musulunci kamar bikin ruwan sama na shekara-shekara da “bautar bakar fata” ga gumakan da suka gabata.




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