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Sarautar Sarkin Musulmi Da Gwagwarmayar Rikon Sarauta (1)

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Kamar yadda mukaji a tarihin jihadin shehu Usmanu ɗan fodio, sarautar sarkin musulmi ta soma ne daga kan shi Shehun kansa, inda ya zamo babban mai bada umarni ga dukkan wata daula da dakaru masu biyayya a gareshi suka kafa ko suka karɓe har tsawon rayuwarsa.

Daga wancan lokacin ne kuma aka samar da tsarin sarautar sarkin musulmi ta zamo sama da sauran sarakunan kasashen hausa, ta yadda duk wanda ya ɗare kan waccan karaga, shine da ikon bada umarni a sauran dauloli.. Wannan abu ya cigaba da kasan cewa har lokacin da turawa sukazo kasar hausa, suka karɓe ikonta duka.

Don haka, rubutun zaiyi duba ne tun daga rasuwar Shehu Usmanu izuwa yaki da turawa.

Haka kuma, an ciro mafi yawan tarihin me daga littafin ‘Tarihin fulani’ wanda Wazirin Sokoto Junaidu ya wallafa, da kuma wasu rubuce-rubuce na masana.

1. Sarkin Musulmi Muhammadu Bello

Sarkin musulmi Muhammadu Bello ɗan Shehu Usmanu ɗan fodio ne, kuma shine ɗa ga matar Shehu Usmanu ta huɗu mai suna Hauwa, koda yake ana kiranta da Inna Garka.

Haka kuma kamar sauran ‘ya’yan shehu Usmanu shahararru irinsu Nana Asma’u da Abubakar Atiku, shima yayi karatun sane a gaban mahaifinsa a Degel har lokacin da akayi hijira izuwa Gudu a shekarar 1803-4.

A lokacin da Allah ya karɓi rayuwar Sarkin musulmi na farko a kasar hausa, kuma mujaddadin musulunci na kasar, watau Shehu Usmanu, sai takaddamar wanda zai gajeshi ta tashi, ciki kuwa har da mabiya kanin shehu kuma wazirinsa Abdullahi bn Fodio da kuma ɗansa Muhammadu Bello.

An ˙ce Muhammadu Bello a Wurno ya kafa sansani yayin da magoya bayansa suka hana kowa shiga sokoto inda cibiyar sarautar take, har dashi kansa Abdullahi fodio.

A wancan lokaci, sai rundunar musulunci ta rarrabu izuwa gidaje kamar huɗu, munafukai suka yawaita samar da zagwan kasa domin wargatsa jihadin da aka soma, amma daga bisani sai Abdullahi fodio ya ajiye adawa da ɗan yayan nasa, inda yayi masa mubaya’a kuma suka haɗu sukaci gaba da yaki tare don jaddada addinin musulunci a kasar hausa.

A zamanin sarautar Muhammadu Bello me wani malami mai suna Alhaji Umar Tall, wanda daga bisani ya kafa daular Tukulur dake senegal ya ziyarci sokoto akan hanyarsa ta dawowa daga aikin Hajji.

An ce Sarkin musulmin ya tarbeshi da martabawa, harma Alhajin yayi rubuce-rubuce a game da haka, sannan Alhajin ya cigaba da zama a sokoto a matsayin Alkali da kuma jagoran yaki har izuwa rasuwar sarki Muhammadu Bello, sannan ya auri ɗiyar sarkin ma a lokacin zamansa a sokoto.

Haka kuma a zamanin Sarki Muhammadu Bello dai, baturen nan mai bincike watau Hugh Clapperton ya ziyarci fadar sarkin musulmi a sokoto a shekarar 1824.

A wancan lokaci, Hugh Clipperton ya rabu da abokin tafiyarsa Denham Oudney wanda akace ya mutu a wuraren wani kauye mai suna Mirmur, wandake tsakanin Katagum da Kano.

Clapperton ya rubuta irin karramawar da sarkin yayi masa da kuma irin hazakarsa ta mulki a ziyararsa ta farko, amma da Hugh ya koma a shekarar 1826 akan hanyarsa ta zuwa ga Alkanemi na Borno, sai sarkin ya hanashi wucewa saboda yakin dake tsakaninsu da masarautar Borno a wancan lokacin. Ana haka ma sai Baturen ya kamu  da jante har ya mutu.

Yake-Yaken Sarkin Musulmi Muhammadu Bello

Da ya ke tun kafin rasuwar shehu Usmanu ɗan fodio a shekarar 1817 a sokoto, ya kasan ce kamar ya rarraba mulkin wasu masarautun ne dake karkashin sa tsakanin manyan mabiyansa, tunda kusan a iya cewa kaninsa Waziri Abdullahi Fodio ke jagorantar Gwandu, ɗansa Muhammdu Bello ke jagorantar Sokoto mazaunin shehu, sai shugabannin yakinsa Aliyu Jedi da Abdussalam Ba’are a Kware.

Don haka, da shehu ya rasu sai wasu garuruwan sukayi bore, suka ce sam shehu suka sani jagoransu, don haka tunda ya rasu yanzu suna da ‘yancin kansu, da yawansu suka kiyin biyayya ga Muhammadu Bello kamar yadda muka kawo cewa an samu rarrabuwa akalla gida huɗu ciki har da Abdullahi fodio wanda sai daga baya yayi mubaya’a gareshi.

Saboda haka a shekarar farko da mulkin Muhammadu Bello, zamfara tayi masa bore. Sarkin Musulmi ya hau gare su zuwa Burmi ya gwabza yaki da su.

A shekarar nan kuma Abdulsalam Ba’are wanda shine a zamanin da Shehu nada rai ya soma kaiwa sarkin Gobir yumfa harin yaki, ya shiga haɗa kai da tsoffin magautansa, ya nemi taimakonsu bisa samun nasara akn Muhammadu Bello.

Sarkin Musulmi Muhammadu Bello yakai masa hari. Akace ya tarfashi kusan kwana biyar a kware suna yaki, daga baya akacishi da yaki a Bakura.

A shekara ta biyu akaci Kadoye da yaki, mutanen Kebbi kuma sukayi ridda suka koma bautar gumaka dasu da Gobirawa. A wannan shekara a ka ci Kalabaina da yaki. A shekara ta uku Sarkin Azbin Ibra ya kawowa sokoto yaki.

Wazirin Sokoto Junaidu ya faɗa cewar “Yana daga karamar Muhammadu Bello samun daidaituwa da abinda yake bushara dashi kamar yadda Waziri Giɗaɗo ya rubuta a littafinsa ‘Kashful Bayan’ cewar ranar wata juma’a Muhammadu Bello ya baiwa shi wazirin da wasu jama’a labarin zuwan Ibra, inda yace: kada ɗayanku ya makara daga wannan rana, domin ni ina ganin rakumma da sirduna ana bisa garesu tsakankanin ɗakunan musulmai”.

Aikuwa sa’ar da Ibra ya kawo yaki, Muhammadu Bello yayi hawa Izuwa ‘Dandoye inda ya sauka, aka gwabza gagarumin yaki, daga karshe Ibra ya sheka da gudu har dokinsa ya faɗi da rawaninsa, suka bar rakumma da sirduna a matsayin ganima, har takai kowanne musulmi na iya kama guda goma..

A shekara ta huɗu akayi yakin Dakurawa, musulmai suka isa har Matankari da yaki, kuma sukaci garuruwan Azbinawa. A cikinta ne Zamfarawa su ka yi harin Gandi.

A cikinta kuma Muhammadu ɗan Abdullahi da Muhammadu Buhari suka ɗauki runduna suka tafi garuruwan Yawuri da yaki, suka ci birane masu yawa har ma suka Zarce kasar Nufe da yaki.

Sa’ar da suke komowa sai suka taras da Zamfarawa da gayyarsu na mutanen yawuri suna dakonsu a iyakar kasar Nufe, ai kuwa a nan a ka yi dagar Ibeto.

A ka gwabza faɗa matsananci, aka wanzu ana ɗauki ba daɗi ga juna, daga karshe Zamfarawa suka karye, rundunarsu ta tarwatse, su ka ɗaiɗaita, su ka gudu suka bar ganima mai yawa.

Za mu cigaba a makon gob, idan Mai Duka ya nufa.




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